3.1.1 The Law School uses an alphanumerical grading system to evaluate students’ performance. In a timely manner, professors/instructors shall assign one of the following final grades to each student registered in his or her courses, which shall be reflected in the student’s academic transcript: A (with plus and minus designations), B (with plus and minus designations), C, F, CR when so approved by the Curriculum Committee, or W in accordance with Rule 1.2.8.

3.1.2 Any student may, at any time, request that he or she be graded on the basis of Credit–Fail. In such event, the student’s performance in every offering is graded in accordance with the standards outlined above, and the grades entered on the student’s permanent transcript; but the transcript released to the student, or to others at the student’s request, shall contain no grades other than Credit (for all passing grades) and Fail. A student electing this option may revoke it at any time prior to graduation and receive or request a copy of his or her transcript with grades recorded in accordance with the above. In all cases, the transcript received or requested by the student shall show, on a cumulative basis, all of the grades of the student presented in a single format—i.e., all grades shall be in accordance with those set forth above, or all grades shall be stated as Credit or Fail.

3.1.3 Credits which appear on a student’s transcript with the grade W shall not count toward that student’s GPA or eligibility for the receipt of academic honors, as set forth in Rule 3.2.3.

3.1.4 A mark of YC may be given at the end of the first term of a course in which the full year’s work must be completed before a final grade is assigned. The grade given at the end of the second term is the grade for the entire course. In the case of students undertaking independent research and whose supervising faculty determine that the work is of such magnitude that it requires an additional semester of research and academic credit, students must alert Registration Services prior to the grading deadline. Registration Services will record the mark of YC on behalf of the faculty supervisor and with their approval. This does not preclude faculty awarding a letter grade for work done thus far nor does this preclude awarding the mark of IN if the final work product is not submitted by the fall work submission deadline and no agreement for further work is made.


3.2.1 Kent Scholar. A student shall be named a Kent Scholar, in recognition of outstanding academic achievement.

3.2.2 Stone Scholar. A student shall be named a Stone Scholar, in recognition of superior academic performance.

3.2.3 No student shall be named a Kent or Stone scholar for any academic year that does not include at least 15 graded Law School points. Only grades in Law School offerings are calculated in the award of honors. Any course for which a student received the grade of W will not count toward graduation credit, the award of honors, or the student’s GPA.

3.2.4 The grade for Failing work may result from either of two circumstances:

  • the unexcused failure of the student to comply with some requirement of the offering (e.g., unexcused absence from the final examination), in which instance the grade shall not be subject to modification except with the concurrence of the instructor; or
  • poor performance by the student on an examination or other basis for evaluation, in which instance:
    • if the student receives only one grade of Fail in any term, he or she shall have the following options:
      • to participate, but not re-enroll in, the same course the next time it is given unless excused from participation by the instructor after consultation with the student, but in either event to take the examination when it is next given, and if the student passes such reexamination, to have the grade of Fail changed on the record to the grade received thereon; or
      • except in connection with required courses, to let the grade of Fail remain on the record, not to repeat the course, and obtain sufficient credits of satisfactory work in other courses to secure the necessary points for graduation; or
      • only with the consent of the instructor, to undertake remedial instruction and submit to re-examination out-of-course, in which case if the student performs satisfactorily on the re-examination, the grade of Fail will be changed to C.
      • The options set forth in the paragraph above are subject to the following understandings and qualifications:
        • grades received on re-examination, which replace the grade of Fail pursuant to or, shall appear on the student’s record with an accompanying notation to the effect that such grade was obtained on a re-examination following unsatisfactory performance when the course was previously taken. Where the student has elected to have the grades recorded on a Credit/Fail basis, a grade of Credit obtained under similar circumstances shall also appear on the student’s record with such accompanying notation.
        • it is the faculty’s understanding that will be the usual device where impending graduation or delay in grading fifth-term students, together with a want of other credits toward graduation, foreclose the use of others within the usual period of the student’s law school career.
        • in exercising these options, students must be aware that the substitute course may be required to meet the residence requirement for the prior term, and in that case could not also be counted toward the residence requirements applicable to other terms.
  • If the student receives two or more grades of Fail in any term, such student shall instead pursue such course of study, upon such terms, as shall be prescribed by the Rules Committee; provided, however, that the Rules Committee may permit expeditious remedial instruction and re-examination in the case of any course or courses only with the concurrence of both the instructor who gave the grade of Fail and the student.

  • A student shall not receive academic or writing credit in any offering in which the performance is graded Fail. Students will be excluded from the school, on the basis of poor academic performance, either where:

    • the student has received, cumulatively, four or more grades of Fail (for this purpose, a grade of Fail shall be counted every time given, even if it is given more than once for the same course and even though a higher grade may later be achieved); or

    • the student has received a grade of Fail in a required course or tutorial seminar in Legal Methods or more than one Fail grade during an academic year, and the grade in the required course or tutorial seminar or two or more of the grades fall into any of the following categories:

      • grade given for failure to comply with some requirement of the offering; or

      • grade given for poor performance, and the student failed, for two school weeks following receipt of the grade and appropriate notice, to consult with the instructor about his or her performance in the course and the options under Rule; or

      • grade given for poor performance, and the student does not rectify the situation by pursuing one of the options provided in Section 3.2.

    • In other curricular offerings extending through the year, a single grade applying to the work of both terms may be recorded if approved by the Dean and announced prior to pre-registration. In all other courses and seminars extending through an academic year, separate grades are recorded for the work of the first and of the second terms, and for grading and point-credit purposes the work of each term is treated as if it were a separate course or seminar.

  • The Rules Committee may, upon petition, re-admit students excluded on the basis of the above standard, on such conditions and subject to such limitations as the Rules Committee deems appropriate. If a student is excluded from the school, and his or her petition for re-admission is denied, arrangements shall be made to refund an appropriate portion of tuition paid for any incomplete portion of a term during which the decision to exclude is made.

A student is expected to make satisfactory progress toward fulfillment of the requirements for the J.D. degree.

3.3.1 Without the approval of the Rules Committee, and compliance with such terms and conditions as it may impose, a student may not:

  • Commence the fourth semester without having completed all the requirements save one associated with the first two semesters.
  • Commence the fifth semester without having completed all the requirements save one associated with the first four semesters.
  • Commence the sixth semester without having completed all the requirements save one associated with the first five semesters.
  • Apply for the J.D. degree without having completed all the requirements save one associated with the first five semesters.

3.3.2 To the extent that timely completion of any point credit requirement depends on the submission of written work, the following rules apply:

  • In the case of written work undertaken in the second year, an extension shall in no event be granted beyond the 15th day of October of the third year.
  • In the case of written work undertaken in the fall term of the third year, an extension shall in no event be granted beyond the first day of the following April.
  • In the case of written work undertaken in the spring term of the third year, an extension shall not be granted except in extraordinary circumstances. Candidates for graduation are hereby placed on notice that if such an extension is granted, it may result in postponement of graduation and of eligibility to take a bar examination.
  • In the case of students who by reason of interruptions of residence or who are not otherwise on the normal three-year track, the Rules Committee shall take the provisions of sub-paragraphs 3.3.2 as guidelines for establishing absolute limits on extensions of time.
  • A student who fails to submit written work in the time specified in this Rule, including any extension of time, shall be awarded a failing grade unless he or she petitions the Rules Committee and is granted an extension or additional extension as the case may be, which shall in no event exceed the limitations set forth above. A student who receives a failing grade on written work, either by reason of failure to make timely submission or unsatisfactory performance, will not be permitted to register for similar work in a subsequent term except on a topic substantially different from the topic of such late or unsatisfactory work.

3.3.3 The Dean may refer to the Rules Committee for appropriate action any student who is likely to be in violation of the foregoing standards at the end of the semester in progress.

Except with the consent of the student, a student’s transcript shall not be made available to anyone except the student and members of the faculty and administration of the School of Law. Where a student elects to be graded on a Credit-Fail basis, no one shall have access to the transcript containing the original grades awarded except the administrative personnel in the Dean’s Office and the Registrar’s Office responsible for entering grades. The student’s file available to the administration and faculty shall contain a transcript limited to grades of Credit and Fail.

In the absence of objection from a student, or a student’s election of a Credit-Fail mode of grading, the student’s grades will be made available, on request, to Law School student publications, to committees administering the Moot Court and Teaching Fellows programs, and to other Law School activities or organizations seeking access to such information who obtain the approval of the Dean and the Advisory Committee. In such instances, the number of recipients in any such organization or activity shall be narrowly circumscribed, and they shall be obliged to treat such information as confidential; breach of confidence shall be grounds for revoking access.

If a member of the faculty is advised by a student that the instructor has been given as a reference for employment or other purposes, the faculty member, in responding to an inquiry or submitting a recommendation, shall be free to describe all aspects of the student’s Law School work known to the faculty member or available on inspection of the student’s file. In all other instances where a faculty member is queried about a student, comments shall be limited to first-hand observations of the student’s work and a general description of the student’s performance, but shall not, without the permission of the student, reveal the student’s grades in particular offerings (except the instructor’s own).