Areas of Expertise
- Constitutional law and jurisprudence, with special emphasis on church and state, freedom of speech, legal interpretation, and criminal responsibility.
- B.A., Swarthmore, 1958
- B. Phil., Oxford, 1960
- LL.B., Columbia, 1963
Editor-in-chief, Columbia Law Review. Before joining the Columbia faculty in 1965, was law clerk to U.S. Supreme Court Justice John M. Harlan and subsequently spent part of a summer as an attorney with the Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights in Jackson, Mississippi. From 1966 to 1969, served on the Civil Rights Committee of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York. Member of the Due Process Committee of the American Civil Liberties Union, 1969-71. Deputy U.S. solicitor general, 1971-72. Fellow of the American Council of Learned Societies. Visiting fellow at Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1972-73. Visiting fellow, All Souls College, Oxford, 1979. Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Member, American Philosophical Society. President, American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy, 1991-93. Main interests are in constitutional law and jurisprudence, with special emphasis on church and state, freedom of speech, legal interpretation, and criminal responsibility.
Publications include Conflicts of Law and Morality (1987); Religious Convictions and Political Choice (1988); Speech, Crime, and the Uses of Language (1989); Law and Objectivity (1992); Fighting Words (1995); Private Consciences and Public Reasons (1995); Statutory Interpretation: Twenty Questions (1999); and Does God Belong in Public Schools? (2005); Religion and the Constitution, Vol. 1, Free Exercise and Fairness (2006); Vol. 2, Establishment and Fairness (2008).